HJ Andrews Experimental Forest

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Location of th HJ Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA


44.2 N, 122.2 W, in the central western Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA, about 80 km east of Eugene.

Catchment size

The main drainage within the HJA is Lookout Creek with 62 km² with a range in elevation from 400-1600 m asl. Lookout Creek is a tributary to the Blue River in the MacKenzie River system. The upper portion of the watershed is divided into three major streams - Lookout Creek, Mack Creek, and McRae Creek.


Climate is Mediterranean with strong contrasts between summer and winter precipitation amounts. The catchment experiences a gradual wet-up period from about October to December and thereafter maintains very high wetness until late spring. Snow accumulations are common, but seldom persist longer than 1–2 weeks and generally melt within 1–2 days. While winters are generally wet and mild, summers are dry and rather cool. The mean annual temperature at 420 m is 8.5 °C ranging from a monthly mean of 0.6 °C in January to 17.8 °C in July. At 1,300 m the values are approximately 2 °C lower. The long-term mean annual precipitation varies from about 2300 mm (lower elevations) to 3550 mm (upper parts). Most of the precipitation (80%) falls between November and April, typically during long-duration frontal storms of low to moderate intensity.


The catchment contains residualand colluvial clay loam soils derived from andesitic tuffs (30%) and coarse breccias (70%) comprising the Little Butte Formation formed as the result of ashfall and pyroclasitic flows from Oligocene-Early Miocene volcanic activity.

Vegetation/Land use

Most of the forests are within the Tsuga heterophylla zone (sensu Franklin & Dyrness 1973) with large old-growth trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco., Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg., and Thuja plicata Donn. dominating the tree layer. At higher elevations (>1,100 m), forest stands belonging to the Abies amabilis zone occur.

Context of investigation

  • effects of forest management activities on water yield and sediment transport
  • peak flows responce
  • snowmelt and accumulation processes
  • catchment nutrient budget


Meteorology CS2MET (44.12.54 N, 122.14.57 W, 485 m) since 1957
Soil Moisture
Catchment nutrient budgets
Water residence time
Sediment transport

Links to project webpages

other Links


Bond, B.J., Jones, J.A., Moore, G., Phillips, N. , Post, D., McDonnell, J.J. 2002. The zone of vegetation influence on baseflow revealed by diel patterns of streamflow and vegetation water use in a headwater basin. Hydrol. Process. 16(8), 1671–1677. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.5022.
Burt, T.,P., Howden, N.J.K., McDonnell, J.J., Jones, J.A., Hancock, J.R. 2015. Seeing the climate through the trees: observing climate and forestry impacts on streamflow using a 60-year record. Hydrol. Process. 29(3), 473–480, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10406.
Carey, S.K., Tetzlaff, D., Buttle, J., Laudon, H., McDonnell, J., McGuire, K., Seibert, J., Soulsby, C., Shanley, J. 2013. Use of color maps and wavelet coherence to discern seasonal and interannual climate influences on streamflow variability in northern catchments. Water Resour. Res., 49(10), 6194-6207, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20469.
Choi S.W., Miller, J.C. 2013. Species richness and abundance among macromoths: A comparison of taxonomic, temporal and spatial patterns in Oregon and South Korea. ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 43(6), 312-321, DOI: 10.1111/1748-5967.12036.
Gabrielli, C.P., McDonnell, J.J. 2012. An inexpensive and portable drill rig for bedrock groundwater studies in headwater catchments. Hydrol. Process. 26(4), 622-632, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8212.
Gabrielli, C.P. McDonnell, J.J., Jarvis, W.T. 2012. The role of bedrock groundwater in rainfall-runoff response at hillslope and catchment scales. J. Hydrol., 450–451, 117–133, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.05.023.
Graham, C.B., McDonnell, J.J. 2010. Hillslope threshold response to rainfall: (2) Development and use of a macroscale model. J. Hydrol. 393(1–2), 77–93, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.008
Graham, C.B., Barnard, H.B., Kavanagh, K.L., McNamara, J.P. 2013. Catchment scale controls the temporal connection of transpiration and diel fluctuations in stream flow. Hydrol. Process. 27(18), 2541-2556, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9334
Greenland, D. 1995. The Pacific Northwest Regional Context Of The Climate of the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. NORTHWEST SCIENCE 69(2), 81-96.
Griffiths, R.P., Madritch, M.D., Swanson, A.K. 2009. The effects of topography on forest soil characteristics in the Oregon Cascade Mountains (USA): Implications for the effects of climate change on soil properties. Forest Ecology and Management 257(1), 1–7, DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.08.010.
Hale, V.C., McDonnell, J.J., 2016. Effect of bedrock permeability on stream base flow mean transit time scaling relations: 1. A multiscale catchment intercomparison. Water Resour. Res., 52(2), 1358-1374, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016124.
Heaston, E.D., Kaylor, M.J., Warren, D.R., 2017. Characterizing short-term light dynamics in forested headwater streams. Freshwater Science, 36(2), 259-271, DOI: 10.1086/691540.
Highland, S.A., Miller, J.C., Jones, J.A., 2013. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: Vegetation, topography, and seasonality. Ecosphere, 4(10), 129, DOI: 10.1890/ES12-00384.1
Kennedy, M.C., McKenzie, D., Tague, C., Dugger, A.L., 2017. Balancing uncertainty and complexity to incorporate fire spread in an eco-hydrological model. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2(8), 706-718, DOI: 10.1071/WF16169.
Jonsson, B.G. 1996. Riparian bryophytes of the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascades, Oregon. BRYOLOGIST 99(2), 226-235, DOI: 10.2307/3244554.
Liu, M., Rajagopalan, K.Chung, S.H., Jiang, X., Harrison, J., Nergui, T., Guenther, A., Miller, C., Reyes, J., Tague, C., Choate, J., Salathe, E.P., Stoeckle, C.O., Adam, J.C. 2014. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes? BIOGEOSCIENCES, 11(10), 2601-2622, DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-2601-2014.
McGuire, K.J., McDonnell, J.J., Weiler, M., Kendall, C., McGlynn, B.L., Welker, J.M.,Seibert, J. 2005. The role of topography on catchment-scale water residence time. Water Resour. Res., 41, W05002, DOI: 10.1029/2004WR003657.
Moore, G.W., Bond, B.J., Jones, J.A., Phillips, N., Meinzer, F.C. 2004. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA. Tree Physiology 24(5), 481–491.
Moore, G.W., Jones, J.A. , Bond, B.J. 2011. How soil moisture mediates the influence of transpiration on streamflow at hourly to interannual scales in a forested catchment. Hydrol. Process. 25, 3701 – 3710, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8095.
Seibert, J., McDonnell, J.J. 2010. Land-cover impacts on streamflow: a change-detection modelling approach that incorporates parameter uncertainty. Hydrological Sciences Journal 55(3), 316-332, DOI: 10.1080/02626661003683264.
Takahiro, S., McDonnell, J.J. 2009. A new time-space accounting scheme to predict stream water residence time and hydrograph source components at the watershed scale. Water Resour. Res., 45, W07401, DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007549.
Thompson, S.E., Basu, N.B., Lascurain, J.Jr., Aubeneau, A., Rao, P.S.C. 2011. Relative dominance of hydrologic versus biogeochemical factors on solute export across impact gradients. Water Resour. Res., 47, W00J05, DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009605.
Vaché, K., Breuer, L., Jones, J., Sollins, P., 2015. Catchment-scale modeling of nitrogen dynamics in a temperate forested watershed, Oregon. An interdisciplinary communication strategy. Water (Switzerland), 7(10), 5345-5377, DOI: 10.3390/w7105345.
Wondzell, S.M., Gooseff, M.N., McGlynn, B.L. 2007. Flow velocity and the hydrologic behavior of streams during baseflow. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 34(24), L24404, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031256.
Wondzell, S.M., Gooseff, M.N., McGlynn, B.L. 2010. An analysis of alternative conceptual models relating hyporheic exchange flow to diel fluctuations in discharge during baseflow recession. Hydrol. Process. 24(6), 686-694, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7507